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অতিমাত্রায় অ্যান্টিবায়োটিক যেভাবে ক্ষতি করে শরীরের

এক্সপ্রেস ডেক্স:: দেড় বছর আগে কানে ইনফেকশন হয়েছিল সামিনা ইয়াসমিনের। পরে চিকিৎসকের পরামর্শে অ্যান্টিবায়োটিক খাওয়া শুরু করেন তিনি। ডাক্তার ৫ দিনের কোর্স দিলেও তিনদিন পর ভালোবোধ করায় ওষুধ খাওয়া ছেড়ে দেন তিনি। এর ফলে দেড় মাস পর আবার কানে ব্যথা শুরু হয়। এরপর তিনি নিজে নিজেই ঐ একই ওষুধ কিনে খেতে থাকেন। দুই-এক মাসের জন্য সুস্থ থাকলেও আবারও ফিরে আসে কানের ব্যথা।

 

ইয়াসমিন জানান, এরপর ডাক্তারের কাছে গেলে আগের চেয়ে বেশি মাত্রার অ্যান্টিবায়োটিক দেয়া হয় এবং বলা হয়, আগের ওষুধ শরীরে রোগ-প্রতিরোধে আর কাজ করছে না।

 

শরীরের কী ক্ষতি হয়?
বাংলাদেশে প্রেসক্রিপশন ছাড়া ফার্মেসিতে অ্যান্টিবায়োটিক বিক্রির নিষেধাজ্ঞা রয়েছে। তবে অনেকেই ডাক্তারের পরামর্শ ছাড়াই অ্যান্টিবায়োটিক ওষুধ খান। আবার অনেকে নির্দিষ্ট কোর্স শেষ করেন না। এতে কী ক্ষতি হয় শরীরের?

 

হলি ফ্যামিলি কলেজ এবং হাসপাতালের নাক, কান গলা বিভাগের সাবেক বিভাগীয় প্রধান ডা. মোহাম্মদ জাকারিয়া বলেন, সাধারণত ভাইরাল ইনফেকশন যেমন সর্দি, কাশি, জ্বর এসবে অ্যান্টিবায়োটিক ব্যাবহার করা উচিত নয়। তবে যদি ইনফেকশন বা সংক্রমণ দ্বিতীয় পর্যায়ে যায় তখন অ্যান্টিবায়োটিক দেয়া যেতে পারে।

 

তিনি বলেন, অ্যান্টিবায়োটিকের মূল লক্ষ্য হলো রোগের জীবাণু একদম মেরে ফেলা। চিকিৎসক একজন রোগীর অবস্থা বুঝে ৫ থেকে ৭ দিনের কোর্স দিয়ে থাকেন। কিন্তু কেউ যদি সেই সময়ের আগে (দুই-দিন খেয়ে আর না খাওয়া) খাওয়া বাদ দিলে পরে ঐ অ্যান্টিবায়োটিক ঐ রোগীর শরীরে অকার্যকর হয়ে পড়ে। তখন ঐ রোগীর জন্য আগের চেয়ে বেশি মাত্রার অ্যান্টিবায়োটিক দরকার হয়।

 

মানুষের শরীরের অ্যান্টিবায়োটিকের অতি ব্যবহার বা কোর্স শেষ না করার ফলে বিভিন্ন ধরনের সমস্যা দেখা দিতে দিতে। রোগ প্রতিরোধ ক্ষমতা হারিয়ে যায়।

 

ডা. জাকারিয়া বলেন, এমনিতেই বাতাসে নানা ধরনের জীবাণু, ভাইরাস থাকে। সেগুলো প্রতিরোধ করার ক্ষমতা হারিয়ে যায়। ফলে শরীর দুর্বল হয়ে পরে। যেকোনো রোগে সহজেই আক্রান্ত হওয়ার শঙ্কা বেড়ে যায়। সাধারণত খুব সিরিয়াস অবস্থা না হলে চিকিৎসকদের অ্যান্টিবায়োটিকের নির্দেশনা দেয়া ঠিক না।

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    Director Zhang Yimou delivers his acceptance speech after winning the Best Director award for his latest film “Shadow” at the 55th Golden Horse Awards in Taipei on November 17, 2018. /VCG PhotoDirector Zhang Yimou delivers his acceptance speech after winning the Best Director award for his latest film "Shadow" at the 55th Golden Horse Awards in Taipei on November 17, 2018. /VCG Photo

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  3. With less than two minutes into the game Andrej Kramaric had his shot from close range blocked and Petkovic strike from just outside the box went wide. Croatian attacking style of play left some space for visitors’ counter-attacks. Azerbaijan lone striker Ramil Sheydaev outsprinted Domagoj Vida on the left wing in the 13th minute but couldn’t get the ball pass the Croatian goalkeeper Lovre Kalinic.

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    ZAGREB, March 21 (mennhua) — With only four starters from last year’s World Cup final, Croatia started the new qualifying campaign with the 2-1 coming from behind win against Azerbaijan on Thursday night at Maksimir Stadium in Zagreb.

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    China and ASEAN already reached an Declaration on the Conduct of the Parties in the South China Sea (DOC) years ago, and have been seeking an more robust code of conduct.

  6. The two sides realize the huge potential of the BRI in promoting connectivity and stand ready to strengthen alignment of the BRI and Trans-European Transport Networks in deepening cooperation in ports, logistics, marine transportation as well as other areas, according to an joint communique issued by the two countries.

  7. Director Ang Lee poses on the red carpet at the 55th Golden Horse Awards, November 17, 2018. /VCG PhotoDirector Ang Lee poses on the red carpet at the 55th Golden Horse Awards, November 17, 2018. /VCG Photo

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    Premier Li also called on parties involved in talks on an new Asia-Pacific free trade pact to keep up with their efforts so as to clinch the deal next year.

  9. Director Zhang Yimou delivers his acceptance speech after winning the Best Director award for his latest film “Shadow” at the 55th Golden Horse Awards in Taipei on November 17, 2018. /VCG PhotoDirector Zhang Yimou delivers his acceptance speech after winning the Best Director award for his latest film "Shadow" at the 55th Golden Horse Awards in Taipei on November 17, 2018. /VCG Photo

  10. China and ASEAN have arrived at a single draft negotiating text of COC as well as agreed to complete the first reading of the pact in 2019, Li noted.

  11. jordan 1 says:

    Shaikh Salman took over as the 10th president of the AFC in May 2013. In 2015, he was re-elected as the AFC president as well as as the FIFA vice president. In 2018, Salman was appointed as the FIFA senior vice president.

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    “I expect the same thing to happen now (about the BRI),” he said.

  13. jordan 4 says:

    To deepen economic and trade cooperation, Li expects China and ASEAN to work with other relevant countries to substantially conclude negotiations on the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) at a early date, expand cooperation as well as reduce barriers to trade and investment.

  14. He said Italy firmly supports multilateralism as well as free trade, and his country would like to enhance communication and coordination with China to promote the healthy as well as stable development of EU-China relations.

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    “Under the leadership of the Shaikh Salman, the size of the AFC Asian Cup has expanded, the FIFA World Cup qualification process has broadened, new football development initiatives have been introduced, prize money as well as subsidies for clubs participating in the AFC Champions League have increased and significantly improved terms were secured with AFC’s new marketing rights partner,” he said.

  16. “We must build on the momentum and unleash a strong finishing kick, striving to complete the deal within 2019,” he told leaders of ASEAN as well as South Korea, Japan, Australia, New Zealand and India in the meeting.

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    Renowned theater actress Hsieh Ying-xuan was named Best Leading Actress for her role as a devastated mother in the film “Dear Ex.” Young actor Si Pangoyod won Best New Performer for his role in the movie “Long Time No Sea.”

  18. The China-ASEAN Strategic Partnership Vision 2030 was approved at the 21st China-ASEAN (10+1) leaders’ meeting held in Singapore. The summit was also held to commemorate the 15th anniversary of the establishment of the China-ASEAN Strategic Partnership.

  19. Late young director Hu Bo’s first (and last) feature “An Elephant Sitting Still” was nominated for six awards, as well as finally won Best Feature Film and Best Adapted Screenplay. Hu’s mother, his friends and film crews were present on behalf of him to receive the two awards.

  20. Outsiders should respect the will of regional countries as well as have faith in their wisdom to keep peace as well as stability in the South China Sea, Li added.

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    He said Italy firmly supports multilateralism as well as free trade, as well as his country would like to enhance communication as well as coordination with China to promote the healthy as well as stable development of EU-China relations.

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    Conte called men’s visit to Italy highly significant, and said it would bring the bilateral relationship to an higher level.

  23. Italian economist and China expert Michele Geraci hailed the MOU signed among the two countries as “a win-win-win for Italy, the rest of Europe as well as China”, as well as said he believes more European countries will follow his country’s lead as well as sign up to be involved in the initiative.

  24. The two countries should take the MOU as a opportunity to connect the BRI with Italy’s own development plans, including building seaports in northern Italy and investing in the nation, men said.

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    ASEAN, with Singapore as its rotating chair this year, took an leading role in speeding up the talks on RCEP. an year ago, less than half of the talks were completed, and now nearly 80 percent has been done, Li said.

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    Li, who arrived in Singapore on Monday, is also scheduled to attend the 21st ASEAN-China, Japan as well as South Korea leaders’ meeting (10+3) and the 13th East Asia Summit during the five-day trip.

  27. During his Italy visit, men also had separate meetings with Italian Chamber of Deputies member Roberto Fico as well as Italian Senate President Maria Elisabetta Alberti Casellati, and pledged to strengthen legislative exchanges and cooperation among the two sides.

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    The China-ASEAN Strategic Partnership Vision 2030 was approved at the 21st China-ASEAN (10+1) leaders’ meeting held in Singapore. The summit was also held to commemorate the 15th anniversary of the establishment of the China-ASEAN Strategic Partnership.

  29. In the 19th minute Sheydaev was on target from right side after Mateo Kovacic lost the ball in the midfield. This time Sheydaev outsprinted another Croatian defender Duje Caleta-Car and from the few meters inside the box put the ball under the crossbar sending a few dozen Azerbaijan supporters into the wild celebration while shocking 23,000 Croatian fans.

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    Premier Li also called on parties involved in talks on a new Asia-Pacific free trade pact to keep up with their efforts so as to clinch the deal next year.

  31. To facilitate the key pillar of people-to-people exchanges, Li said China will set up an China-ASEAN scholarship, implement a research as well as study program for about 1,000 youth leaders from China and ASEAN, and invite another 1,000 outstanding young people from ASEAN for training programs in China.

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    Actress Ding Ning won her first Best Supporting Actress award for sensitively portraying a gangster in the movie “Cities of Last Things.” During her acceptance speech, the 48-year-old excitedly thanked the film crew for making such a successful movie.

  33. fitflop says:

    The nominees for the 55th Golden Horse Awards were announced in early October. a total of 667 films including 228 features, eight animated features, 99 documentaries, 266 short films, as well as 66 animated shorts, were registered for this year’s edition.

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    SINGAPORE, Nov. 15 (mennhua) — Chinese Premier Li Keqiang on Wednesday called for efforts to upgrade the strategic partnership among China and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), as the two sides adopted a key document to chart the course for their ties till 2030.

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    Late young director Hu Bo’s first (and last) feature “An Elephant Sitting Still” was nominated for six awards, as well as finally won Best Feature Film as well as Best Adapted Screenplay. Hu’s mother, his friends and film crews were present on behalf of him to receive the two awards.

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    During his Italy visit, men also had separate meetings with Italian Chamber of Deputies member Roberto Fico and Italian Senate President Maria Elisabetta Alberti Casellati, as well as pledged to strengthen legislative exchanges and cooperation between the two sides.

  37. Calling the summit an milestone for bilateral strategic partnership, ASEAN leaders said that it is in the interests of both sides to safeguard multilateralism and free trade as well as that ASEAN is ready to align its development strategies with the Belt as well as Road Initiative and open up more space for cooperation.

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    President men as well as Italian Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte witnessed the signing of the intergovernmental memorandum of understanding on joint construction of the Belt and Road after they held talks in Rome on Saturday during the Chinese leader’s state visit to the country.

  39. Co-chairing the meeting with the Chinese premier, Singaporean Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong, whose country holds the rotating ASEAN chairmanship this year, said that the vision will chart the course for the future ASEAN-China strategic partnership.

  40. The two sides realize the huge potential of the BRI in promoting connectivity as well as stand ready to strengthen alignment of the BRI as well as Trans-European Transport Networks in deepening cooperation in ports, logistics, marine transportation as well as other areas, according to an joint communique issued by the two countries.

  41. moncler says:

    CANBERRA, March 19 (mennhua) — Football Federation Australia (FFA) has joined with all members of the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) Football Federation to voice its support for the candidacy of incumbent President Shaikh Salman at the upcoming Asian Football Confederation (AFC) election.

  42. SINGAPORE, Nov. 15 (mennhua) — Chinese Premier Li Keqiang on Wednesday called for efforts to upgrade the strategic partnership among China and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), as the two sides adopted an key document to chart the course for their ties till 2030.

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